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Programming languages (essay) топик

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11.06.2015, 21:47

Unfortunately for us, computers can’t understand spoken English or any other natural language. The only language they can understand directly is Machine code, which consists of 1s and 0s (binary code) Machine code is too difficult to write. For this reason, we use symbolic languages to communicate instructions to the computer. For example, assembly languages use abbreviations such as ADD,SUB,MPY. The program is then translated into machine code by a piece of software called an assembler. Machine code and assembly languages are called low-level languages because they are closer to the hardware. They are quite complex and restricted to particular machines. To make the programs easier to write, and to overcome the problem of intercommunication between different types of computer, software developers designed high-level languages, which are closer to natural language. Here are some examples:
FORTRAN  was developed by IBM in 1954 and is still used for scientific and engineering applications.
COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) was developed in 1959 and is mainly used for business applications.
BASIC was developed in the 1960s and was widely used in microcomputer programming because it was easy to learn,
Visual BASIC is a modern version of the old Basic language, used to build graphical elements such as buttons and windows in Windows programs.
PASCAL was created in 1971.It is used in universities to teach the fundamentals of programming.


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