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1.    Кіріспе
2.    Транзисторлар, олардың түрлері
3.    Өрістік және биполярлы транзисторлар
4.    Жұмыс істеу принципі
5.    Қорытынды

Транзисторлар және олардың түрлері

Транзистор (ағылш. transfer — тасымалдау және resistor — кедергіш) — токты күшейтуге, түрлендіруге арналған үш электродты жартылай өткізгіш құрал. Транзисторға жіберілген аз ток (кернеу) үлкен ток ағынын басқарады.

Топиктер ағылшынша | Просмотров: 18128 | Загрузок: 910 | Добавил: Admin | Дата: 11.06.2015 | Комментарии (0)

The term user interface refers to the standard procedures they the user follows in order to iterate with a computer.In the late 1970s and early 80s, the way users accessed computer systems was very complex.They had to memorize and type a lot of commands just to see the contents of a disk, to copy files or to respond to a single prompt. In fact, it was only experts who used computers, so there was no need for a user-friendly interface.In 1984, Apple produced the Macintosh, the first computer with a mouse and a graphical user interface(GUI).Macs were designed with one clear aim: to facilitate interaction with the computer.A few years later, Microsoft launched Windows, another operating system based on graphics and intuitive tools.Nowadays, computers are used by all kind of people, and as a result there in a growing emphasis on accessibility and user-friendly systems.A GUI makes use of a WIMP environment: Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointer.The background of the screen is called the desktop, which contains labelled pictures called icons. 

Топиктер ағылшынша | Просмотров: 1573 | Загрузок: 0 | Добавил: Admin | Дата: 11.06.2015 | Комментарии (0)

Computer network, also called Network,  two or more computers that are connected with one another for the purpose of communicating data electronically. Besides physically connecting computer and communication devices, a network system serves the important function of establishing a cohesive architecture that allows a variety of equipment types to transfer information in a near-seamless fashion. Two popular architectures are ISO Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) and IBM’s Systems Network Architecture (SNA).

Two basic network types are local-area networks (LANs) and wide-area (or long-haul) networks. LANs connect computers and peripheral devices in a limited physical area, such as a business office, laboratory, or college campus, by means of permanent links (wires, cables, fibre optics) that transmit data rapidly. A typical LAN consists of two or more personal computers, printers, and high-capacity disk-storage devices called file servers, which enable each computer on the network to access a common set of files. 

Топиктер ағылшынша | Просмотров: 1500 | Загрузок: 0 | Добавил: Admin | Дата: 11.06.2015 | Комментарии (0)

Today's world is often called the computer world. We cannot imagine our life without computers. The first computers were developed during the Second World War. They were used to break the codes, used to send secret information.
After that, they were used for doing calculations for the first atom bomb tests. Basically, computers do calculations and that's all. They can do calculations very quickly, no man is capable of doing such calculations so quickly. The first computers were very big.
Computers are an essential part of office management. Sophisticated software may even reduce the need for some specialized staff,) lowering the cost of doing business. Anyone who wishes to work in an office should be familiar with a variety of computer applications and be a skilled typist, as few office jobs do not require the use of computers.

Топиктер ағылшынша | Просмотров: 1985 | Загрузок: 0 | Добавил: Admin | Дата: 11.06.2015 | Комментарии (0)

A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage your computer, programs, and files. Like a virus in a living thing, a computer virus can spread if it is not removed. Some viruses are more dangerous than others. One of the most common places for a computer virus to appear is on a file found on the Internet or attached to an E-mail. For example, you may have a virus that just pops a message box on your screen, and then the virus is disabled, or you can have a virus that deletes half of your hard drive. Computer viruses didn’t really exist until the mid 1980s. The first computer viruses were created in university labs to demonstrate how much of a threat the vicious code could be. There are many kind of viruses that exist today. Some of the most common of Computer Viruses are: File Viruses, Boot Sector/Partition Viruses, Multi-Partite Viruses, Trojan Horses, File Overwriters, Polymorphic viruses, and Stealth Viruses. A File Virus is the most common kind of virus. 

Топиктер ағылшынша | Просмотров: 1390 | Загрузок: 0 | Добавил: Admin | Дата: 11.06.2015 | Комментарии (0)

Unfortunately for us, computers can’t understand spoken English or any other natural language. The only language they can understand directly is Machine code, which consists of 1s and 0s (binary code) Machine code is too difficult to write. For this reason, we use symbolic languages to communicate instructions to the computer. For example, assembly languages use abbreviations such as ADD,SUB,MPY. The program is then translated into machine code by a piece of software called an assembler. Machine code and assembly languages are called low-level languages because they are closer to the hardware. They are quite complex and restricted to particular machines. To make the programs easier to write, and to overcome the problem of intercommunication between different types of computer, software developers designed high-level languages, which are closer to natural language. 

Топиктер ағылшынша | Просмотров: 1895 | Загрузок: 0 | Добавил: Admin | Дата: 11.06.2015 | Комментарии (0)

The rights of human

In 1948, the United Nations wrote the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It listed 29 different human rights. According to the declaration, every person has the right to speak freely, to marry whomever he/she wants, to choose the work he/she likes and to get an education. The list of human fights includes protection against cruel punishment and protection against racial, ethnic, sexual, and religious discrimination. These rights are important for people throughout the world. But in some countries, people live without these rights. People still practice racism and discriminate against others.
Human rights are those rights and privileges, which belong to any man. Typical elements on any list of basic human rights will be, for example, the rights to freedom of speech information, religion, the right to family life, the to liberty, education, equality before the law and to a nationality. 

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Mass Media

Mass media (that is, the press, the radio and television) play an important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. Mass media mould public opinion. Millions of people in their spare time watch TV and read newspapers.
Everybody can find there something interesting for him. On the radio one can hear music, plays, news and various discussions or commentaries of current events. Multiple radio or TV games and films attract a large audience. Newspapers are used in different ways, but basically they are read.
There is a lot of advertisment on mass media. Some of the TV and radio stations and newspapers are owned by different corporations. The owners can advertise whatever they choose.

Топиктер ағылшынша | Просмотров: 1556 | Загрузок: 0 | Добавил: Admin | Дата: 11.06.2015 | Комментарии (0)

People nowadays spend too much time watching TV
Many people claim that they don't have time to work out or cook healthy meals, yet they do find the time to park themselves in front of the TV. In fact, the average American watches 31.5 hours of TV per week. That's almost as many hours as most of us spend working! That's a lot of hours that could be spent shopping for and preparing nutritious meals, hitting the gym or even taking up a new hobby.
 Signs You're Watching Too Much TV:
1.    Your TV tray has a permanent spot in your living room. If you eat all of your meals in front of the television, it might mean you're a little too addicted to cable
2.    You get up from the TV after hours and have no idea what you've been watching
3.    Commercials have become your culinary inspiration. If you're craving fast food because you saw that Burger King commercial, it might be a sign that you're saturating your brain with advertisements!
4.     Вы поймаете себя на мысли, что вы могли бы играть главную роль в своем собственном реалити-шоу
5.     You don't have time to exercise, but you do make time to sit on the couch
In conclusion, people shouldn’t watch too much television because the content of many TV programs is not educational; it makes people waste time that could be used in more beneficial activities; and it affects people’s mental development. However, this doesn’t mean that we should ban TV, but if we are going to watch it, we should do it with moderation. Television is a resource that we should learn to use through the right selection of programs by taking an active and critical attitude towards it.

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We live in a world of rapid technological advancement.
 Robots, Artifical intelligence. Robotics has been one of the most researched and most worked area in field of engineering. Regarded to appear similar to human with the capability to perform every possible work without anxiety or tiredness is what makes a robot. On the other hand, the Artificial technology has already started showing its pathway in modern day robots. Basically, AI is related to make excellent machines that uses ultra-technology to perform its tasks. Inspired with the war machines and robots in films like the Terminator, Star Wars and similar movies, engineers have spent a lot of their time, technology and budget in creating such intelligence useful for several household purposes, carpentry, fire-fighting, military applications and even more promising applications like to perform several disaster operations during floods, landslides, bomb diffusions etc.  Artificial intelligence also makes the use of robotics to surpass the intelligence of humans and make it faster, reliable and accurate than computers. 

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